A crash course in memory management

This is the 1st article in a 3-part series:

  1. A crash course in memory management
  2. A cartoon intro to ArrayBuffers and SharedArrayBuffers
  3. Avoiding race conditions in SharedArrayBuffers with Atomics

To understand why ArrayBuffer and SharedArrayBuffer were added to JavaScript, you need to understand a bit about memory management.

You can think of memory in a machine as a bunch of boxes. I think of these like the mailboxes that you have in offices, or the cubbies that pre-schoolers have to store their things.

If you need to leave something for one of the other kids, you can put it inside a box.

A column of boxes with a child putting something in one of the boxes

Next to each one of these boxes, you have a number, which is the memory address. That’s how you tell someone where to find the thing you’ve left for them.

Each one of these boxes is the same size and can hold a certain amount of info. The size of the box is specific to the machine. That size is called word size. It’s usually something like 32-bits or 64-bits. But to make it easier to show, I’m going to use a word size of 8 bits.

A box with 8 smaller boxes in it

If we wanted to put the number 2 in one of these boxes, we could do it easily. Numbers are easy to represent in binary.

The number two, converted to binary 00000010 and put inside the boxes

What if we want something that’s not a number though? Like the letter H?

We’d need to have a way to represent it as a number. To do that, we need an encoding, something like UTF-8. And we’d need something to turn it into that number… like an encoder ring. And then we can store it.

The letter H, put through an encoder ring to get 72, which is then converted to binary and put in the boxes

When we want to get it back out of the box, we’d have to put it through a decoder to translate it back to H.

Automatic memory management

When you’re working in JavaScript you don’t actually need to think about this memory. It’s abstracted away from you. This means you don’t touch the memory directly.

Instead, the JS engine acts as an intermediary. It manages the memory for you.

A column of boxes with a rope in front of it and the JS engine standing at that rope like a bouncer

So let’s say some JS code, like React, wants to create a variable.

Same as above, with React asking the JS engine to create a variable

What the JS engine does is run that value through an encoder to get the binary representation of the value.

The JS engine using an encoder ring to convert the string to binary

And it will find space in the memory that it can put that binary representation into. This process is called allocating memory.

The JS engine finding space for the binary in the column of boxes

Then, the engine will keep track of whether or not this variable is still accessible from anywhere in the program. If the variable can no longer be reached, the memory is going to be reclaimed so that the JS engine can put new values there.

The garbage collector clearing out the memory

This process of watching the variables—strings, objects, and other kinds of values that go in memory—and clearing them out when they can’t be reached anymore is called garbage collection.

Languages like JavaScript, where the code doesn’t deal with memory directly, are called memory-managed languages.

This automatic memory management can make things easier for developers. But it also adds some overhead. And that overhead can sometimes make performance unpredictable.

Manual memory management

Languages with manually managed memory are different. For example, let’s look at how React would work with memory if it were written in C (which would be possible now with WebAssembly).

C doesn’t have that layer of abstraction that JavaScript does on the memory. Instead, you’re operating directly on memory. You can load things from memory, and you can store things to memory.

A WebAssembly version of React working with memory directly

When you’re compiling C or other languages down to WebAssembly, the tool that you use will add in some helper code to your WebAssembly. For example, it would add code that does the encoding and decoding bytes. This code is called a runtime environment. The runtime environment will help handle some of the stuff that the JS engine does for JS.

An encoder ring being shipped down as part of the .wasm file

But for a manually managed language, that runtime won’t include garbage collection.

This doesn’t mean that you’re totally on your own. Even in languages with manual memory management, you’ll usually get some help from the language runtime. For example, in C, the runtime will keep track of which memory addresses are open in something called a free list.

A free list next to the column of boxes, listing which boxes are free right now

You can use the function malloc (short for memory allocate) to ask the runtime to find some memory addresses that can fit your data. This will take those addresses off of the free list. When you’re done with that data, you have to call free to deallocate the memory. Then those addresses will be added back to the free list.

You have to figure out when to call those functions. That’s why it’s called manual memory management—you manage the memory yourself.

As a developer, figuring out when to clear out different parts of memory can be hard. If you do it at the wrong time, it can cause bugs and even lead to security holes. If you don’t do it, you run out of memory.

This is why many modern languages use automatic memory management—to avoid human error. But that comes at the cost of performance. I’ll explain more about this in the next article.

About Lin Clark

Lin works in Advanced Development at Mozilla, with a focus on Rust and WebAssembly.

More articles by Lin Clark…


  1. jero

    Amazing contribution, it just clear for me.

    Can I translate it to Spanish Latinamerica?

    June 15th, 2017 at 12:53

    1. Lin Clark

      Yes, I’d be happy to have a Spanish translation! Just make sure to link back to the original articles, and also add the link here when you are done. Thanks!

      June 18th, 2017 at 07:16

    2. oxicode


      June 27th, 2017 at 08:30

  2. Nicolás Isnardi

    Great way to explain this concept! Thanks for the great work!

    June 16th, 2017 at 04:44

  3. jobou

    Love your pics !!!! :)

    June 16th, 2017 at 12:45

  4. Shayan

    Very helpful article

    June 17th, 2017 at 10:50

  5. Andrew

    Excellent write up. Great work.

    June 17th, 2017 at 15:30

  6. p thompson

    Great explanation – helpful graphics :)

    June 17th, 2017 at 22:07

  7. Darshan k.

    Absolutely helpful stuff for a newbie like me.
    Short and sweet. Like your methodology to explain this. Keep up the good work!


    June 18th, 2017 at 17:26

  8. Segey

    An excellent article. Very clear, simple, illustrative and useful for getting basic knowledge how memory system works. That the way which students should be taught in universities. I have forwarded it to my daughter :)

    June 18th, 2017 at 21:42

  9. Andrey Melikhov

    Hi again!
    I published Russian translation https://medium.com/devschacht/a-crash-course-in-memory-management-b4863e000a5f :)

    June 19th, 2017 at 00:38

  10. Joey Zhou

    Excellent works, can I translate it to Chinese version?

    June 19th, 2017 at 19:38

    1. Lin Clark

      Yes, I’d be happy to have a Chinese version :) Just make sure to link back to the original and post the link back here when it’s published. Thanks!

      June 20th, 2017 at 05:19

      1. Joey Zhou

        Chinese version published here, hope you like it.

        June 23rd, 2017 at 07:17

  11. Zhao Zhiming

    I just translate this series articles to Chinese.


    June 22nd, 2017 at 05:44

  12. Tayyab

    Funtastic work enjoying while reading your work

    June 24th, 2017 at 21:11

  13. Charles

    Great article…thanks

    June 25th, 2017 at 14:41

  14. Prakash

    Superb. Even a non-technical guy can understand this. Hats off to you.

    June 28th, 2017 at 20:14

  15. 0xnntt

    You can’t imagine how much this article was interesting for me!!!
    The photographic language you used in your article is unique and really interesting.
    Thank you for great writeup and great representation.

    June 30th, 2017 at 14:05

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