No Single Benchmark for the Web

Google released a new JavaScript benchmark a few days ago called Octane. New benchmarks are always welcome, as they push browsers to new levels of performance in new areas. I was particularly pleased to see the inclusion of pdf.js, which unlike most benchmarks is real-world code, as well as the GB Emulator which is a very interesting type of performance-intensive code. However, every benchmark suite has limitations, and it is worth keeping that in mind, especially given the new benchmark’s title in the announcement and in the project page as “The JavaScript Benchmark Suite for the Modern Web” – which is a high goal to set for a single benchmark.

Now, every benchmark must pick some code to run out of all the possible code out there, and picking representative code is very hard. So it is always understandable that benchmarks are never 100% representative of the code that exists and is important. However, even taking that into account, I have concerns with some of the code selected to appear in Octane: There are better versions of two of the five new benchmarks, and performance on those better versions is very different than the versions that do appear in Octane.

Benchmarking black boxes

One of the new benchmarks in Octane is “Mandreel”, which is the Bullet physics engine compiled by Mandreel, a C++ to JS compiler. Bullet is definitely interesting code to include in a benchmark. However the choice of Mandreel’s port is problematic. One issue is that Mandreel is a closed-source compiler, a black box, making it hard to learn from it what kind of code is efficient and what should be optimized. We just have a generated code dump, which, as a commercial product, would cost money for anyone to reproduce those results with modifications to the original C++ being run or a different codebase. We also do not have the source code compiled for this particular benchmark: Bullet itself is open source, but we don’t know the specific version compiled here, nor do we have the benchmark driver code that uses Bullet, both of which would be necessary to reproduce these results using another compiler.

An alternative could have been to use Bullet compiled by Emscripten, an open source compiler that similarly compiles C++ to JS (disclaimer: I am an Emscripten dev). Aside from being open, Emscripten also has a port of Bullet (a demo can be seen here) that can interact in a natural way with regular JS, making it usable in normal web games and not just compiled ones, unlike Mandreel’s port. This is another reason for preferring the Emscripten port of Bullet instead.

Is Mandreel representative of the web?

The motivation Google gives for including Mandreel in Octane is that Mandreel is “used in countless web-based games.” It seems that Mandreel is primarily used in the Chrome Web Store (CWS) and less outside in the normal web. The quoted description above is technically accurate: Mandreel games in the CWS are indeed “web-based” (written in JS+HTML+WebGL) even if they are not actually “on the web”, where by “on the web” I mean outside of the walled garden of the CWS and in the normal web that all browsers can access. And it makes perfect sense that Google cares about the performance of code that runs in the CWS, since Google runs and profits from that store. But it does call into question the title of the Octane benchmark as “The JavaScript Benchmark Suite for the Modern Web.”

Performance of generated code is highly variable

With that said, it is still fair to say that compiler-generated code is increasing in importance on the web, so some benchmark must be chosen to represent it. The question is how much the specific benchmark chosen represents compiled code in general. On the one hand the compiled output of Mandreel and Emscripten is quite similar: both use large typed arrays, the same Relooper algorithm, etc., so we could expect performance to be similar. That doesn’t seem to always be the case, though. When we compare Bullet compiled by Mandreel with Bullet compiled by Emscripten – I made a benchmark of that a while back, it’s available here – then on my MacBook pro, Chrome is 1.5x slower than Firefox on the Emscripten version (that is, Chrome takes 1.5 times as long to execute in this case), but 1.5x faster on the Mandreel version that Google chose to include in Octane (that is, Chrome receives a score 1.5 times larger in this case). (I tested with Chrome Dev, which is the latest version available on Linux, and Firefox Aurora which is the best parallel to it. If you run the tests yourself, note that in the Emscripten version smaller numbers are better while the opposite is true in the Octane version.)

(An aside, not only does Chrome have trouble running the Emscripten version quickly, but that benchmark also exposes a bug in Chrome where the tab consistently crashes when the benchmark is reloaded – possibly a dupe of this open issue. A serious problem of that nature, that does not happen on the Mandreel-compiled version, could indicate that the two were optimized differently as a result of having received different amounts of focus by developers.)

Another issue with the Mandreel benchmark is the name. Calling it Mandreel implies it represents all Mandreel-generated code, but there can be huge differences in performance depending on what C/C++ code is compiled, even with a single compiler. For example, Chrome can be 10-15x slower than Firefox on some Emscripten-compiled benchmarks (example 1, example 2) while on others it is quite speedy (example). So calling the benchmark “Mandreel-Bullet” would have been better, to indicate it is just one Mandreel-compiled codebase, which cannot represent all compiled code.

Box2DWeb is not the best port of Box2D

“Box2DWeb” is another new benchmark in Octane, in which a specific port of Box2D to JavaScript is run, namely Box2DWeb. However, as seen here (see also this), Box2DWeb is significantly slower than other ports of Box2D to the web, specifically Mandreel and Emscripten’s ports from the original C++ that Box2D is written in. Now, you can justify excluding the Mandreel version because it cannot be used as a library from normal JS (just as with Bullet before), but the Emscripten-compiled one does not have that limitation and can be found here. (Demos can be seen here and here.)

Another reason for preferring the Emscripten version is that it uses Box2D 2.2, whereas Box2DWeb uses the older Box2D 2.1. Compiling the C++ code directly lets the Emscripten port stay up to date with the latest upstream features and improvements far more easily.

It is possible that Google surveyed websites and found that the slower Box2DWeb was more popular, although I have no idea whether that was the case, but if so that would partially justify preferring the slower version. However, even if that were true, I would argue that it would be better to use the Emscripten version because as mentioned earlier it is faster and more up to date. Another factor to consider is that the version included in Octane will get attention and likely an increase in adoption, which makes it all the more important to select the one that is best for the web.

I put up a benchmark of Emscripten-compiled Box2D here, and on my machine Chrome is 3x slower than Firefox on that benchmark, but 1.6x faster on the version Google chose to include in Octane. This is a similar situation to what we saw earlier with the Mandreel/Bullet benchmark and it raises the same questions about how representative a single benchmark can be.


As mentioned at the beginning, all benchmarks are imperfect. And the fact that the specific code samples in Octane are ones that Chrome runs well does not mean the code was chosen for that reason: The opposite causation is far more likely, that Google chose to focus on optimizing those and in time made Chrome fast on them. And that is how things properly work – you pick something to optimize for, and then optimize for it.

However, in 2 of the 5 new benchmarks in Octane there are good reasons for preferring alternative, better versions of those two benchmarks as we saw before. Now, it is possible that when Google started to optimize for Octane, the better options were not yet available – I don’t know when Google started that effort – but the fact that better alternatives exist in the present makes substantial parts of Octane appear less relevant today. Of course, if performance on the better versions was not much different than the Octane versions then this would not matter, but as we saw there were in fact significant differences when comparing browsers on those versions: One browser could be significantly better on one version of the same benchmark but significantly slower on another.

What all of this shows is that there cannot be a single benchmark for the modern web. There are simply too many kinds of code, and even when we focus on one of them, different benchmarks of that particular task can behave very differently.

With that said, we shouldn’t be overly skeptical: Benchmarks are useful. We need benchmarks to drive us forward, and Octane is an interesting new benchmark that, even with the problems mentioned above, does contain good ideas and is worth focusing on. But we should always be aware of the limitations of any single benchmark, especially when a single benchmark claims to represent the entire modern web.



  1. Isaac Gouy

    > So it is always understandable that benchmarks are never 100% representative of the code that exists and is important.

    “The performance of a benchmark, even if it is derived from a real program, may not help to predict the performance of similar programs that have different hot spots.”

    August 25th, 2012 at 07:59

  2. WebUser

    Performance is important, but support for ECMAScript standard is also important. Why Firefox has worst result in tests? Look at this page:

    August 25th, 2012 at 18:21

    1. Brendan Eich

      It looks like we’ve failed to fix the last ES5 conformance problems, which center around strict-mode code |this| coercion if my memory serves. I am working to get these fixes prioritized and done.


      August 27th, 2012 at 14:29

      1. Tom Schuster (@evilpies)

        I think actually most of of the issues are related to the Array “length” property. In ES5 you are allowed to make it non-writable, which means we literally fail hundreds of test that do this.

        August 29th, 2012 at 10:15

        1. Brendan Eich

          Thanks, @evilpies — dmandelin pointed this out to me as well, and I should have remembered. The bugs:

 and also

          are fixable without major re-arch. Let’s chat about this on IRC soon.


          August 29th, 2012 at 10:24

  3. NinjaWarrior1976

    I feel Box2Dweb is (not well maintained though) the best choice because it’s popular and can be used from normal JavaScript. And I understand that Emscripten generated code is not optimized for Chrome…

    August 27th, 2012 at 08:29

    1. Alon Zakai

      As mentioned in the article, the Emscripten version *can* be used from normal JavaScript (it’s the Mandreel one that can’t). You can see the Emscripten one being used from normal JavaScript in the box2d.js demos linked to.

      Emscripten-generated code is optimized for all the modern JS engines. Both in terms of generating code that should work in all modern JS engines (like fully optimized function calls), and also we have been filing issues on all browsers where we found problems, so they can improve them or provide feedback on what we need to change, links appear in the article.

      August 27th, 2012 at 09:47

      1. Tom Colwill

        Hi Alon,
        I would like to do fortran to javascript. Can I do this with emscripten?

        Thank you,

        Best regards,

        Tom Colwill

        November 22nd, 2012 at 14:52

        1. azakai

          Should be possible, not sure if it is yet though, see


          November 23rd, 2012 at 04:04

  4. Alon Zakai

    I should clarify what I wrote about the Relooper: I said “the same Relooper algorithm” is used in Emscripten and Mandreel, but I was being a little too brief there. They both use the same general approach, which was written in the linked paper that inspired both implementations. But the implementations are completely separate and have different details and so forth.

    August 29th, 2012 at 14:31

  5. Mark Cody

    Yes you are correct, benchmarks are useful and there are so many out there to choose from. Sometimes I find it difficult to accept the authority of results when they do differ across an array of different results!

    August 29th, 2012 at 14:55

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