Offline Web Apps on GitHub Pages

Service Workers are a response to the problems of Application Cache, and they’re a powerful and elegant way to offline your web app. But they’re also more complex to implement and maintain.

Meanwhile, GitHub Pages is a great, simple static host for offline-first apps. But deploying apps to GitHub Pages requires manual configuration, especially if you develop with a team, utilize some variant of the GitHub Flow, and want to set up continuous deployment.

Oghliner is an npm package that simplifies both offlining an app with Service Workers and deploying the app to GitHub Pages (including continuous deployment using Travis CI). Oghliner’s goal is to make it as simple as possible to offline and deploy a web app.

To start using Oghliner, install it globally:

> npm install --global oghliner

If you have an existing app in a GitHub repository, invoke the integrate command to configure it. That command copies an offline-manager.js script (which registers the service worker) into your app and reminds you to load that script in your app’s page(s)/template(s) (one of the few steps that Oghliner doesn’t yet automate).

> oghliner integrate
Integrating Oghliner into the app in the current directory…

 Copying offline-manager.js to ./… done!

Oghliner has been integrated into the app!

The app needs to load the script offline-manager.js in order to register
the service worker that offlines the app. To load the script, add this line to 
the app's HTML page(s)/template(s):

<script src="offline-manager.js"></script>

And commit the changes and push the commit to the origin/master branch:

git commit -m"integrate Oghliner" --all
git push origin master

Then you can offline and deploy the app using the offline and deploy commands.

ℹ For more information about offlining and deployment, see:

If you don’t yet have an existing app, start a new app by creating a new repository on GitHub, cloning it to your local machine, and invoking the bootstrap command from its working directory.

> git clone
Cloning into 'offline-app'...
> cd offline-app/
> oghliner bootstrap
Bootstrapping current directory as Oghliner app…

Your app's configuration is:

Name: offline-app
Description: A template app bootstrapped with oghliner.
License: Apache-2.0

Would you like to change its configuration (y/N)? 

Creating files…
 Creating .gitignore
 Creating gulpfile.js
 Creating package.json
 Creating app/favicon.ico
 Creating app/fonts
 Creating app/index.html
 Creating app/robots.txt
 Creating app/images/apple-touch-icon-114x114.png
 Creating app/images/apple-touch-icon-120x120.png
 Creating app/images/apple-touch-icon-144x144.png
 Creating app/images/apple-touch-icon-152x152.png
 Creating app/images/apple-touch-icon-57x57.png
 Creating app/images/apple-touch-icon-60x60.png
 Creating app/images/apple-touch-icon-72x72.png
 Creating app/images/apple-touch-icon-76x76.png
 Creating app/images/favicon-128x128.png
 Creating app/images/favicon-16x16.png
 Creating app/images/favicon-196x196.png
 Creating app/images/favicon-32x32.png
 Creating app/images/favicon-96x96.png
 Creating app/images/mstile-144x144.png
 Creating app/images/mstile-150x150.png
 Creating app/images/mstile-310x150.png
 Creating app/images/mstile-310x310.png
 Creating app/images/mstile-70x70.png
 Creating app/scripts/main.js
 Creating app/scripts/offline-manager.js
 Creating app/styles/stylesheet.css

 Creating files… done!
 Installing npm dependencies… done!

Your app has been bootstrapped! Just commit the changes and push the commit
to the origin/master branch:

git add --all && git commit -m"initial version of Oghliner app"
git push origin master

Then you can build, offline, and deploy the app using gulp commands.

ℹ For more information about building, offlining and deployment, see:

Finally, commit the changes to complete the configuration.

> git add --all && git commit -m"initial version of Oghliner app"

Now that your app is configured, you can build, offline, and deploy it. Bootstrapped apps include a gulpfile.js build script. To build them, install Gulp globally:

> npm install --global gulp

Then simply invoke gulp:

> gulp

To offline your app, invoke the offline command to generate the service worker that offlines your app, specifying the directory containing the files to offline.

> oghliner offline dist/
Offlining dist/ to dist/offline-worker.js…

 Caching "dist/favicon.ico" (384 B)
 Caching "dist/images/apple-touch-icon-114x114.png" (278 B)
 Caching "dist/images/apple-touch-icon-120x120.png" (285 B)
 Caching "dist/images/apple-touch-icon-144x144.png" (321 B)
 Caching "dist/images/apple-touch-icon-152x152.png" (320 B)
 Caching "dist/images/apple-touch-icon-57x57.png" (242 B)
 Caching "dist/images/apple-touch-icon-60x60.png" (242 B)
 Caching "dist/images/apple-touch-icon-72x72.png" (247 B)
 Caching "dist/images/apple-touch-icon-76x76.png" (247 B)
 Caching "dist/images/favicon-128x128.png" (298 B)
 Caching "dist/images/favicon-16x16.png" (216 B)
 Caching "dist/images/favicon-196x196.png" (380 B)
 Caching "dist/images/favicon-32x32.png" (232 B)
 Caching "dist/images/favicon-96x96.png" (269 B)
 Caching "dist/images/mstile-144x144.png" (323 B)
 Caching "dist/images/mstile-150x150.png" (316 B)
 Caching "dist/images/mstile-310x150.png" (411 B)
 Caching "dist/images/mstile-310x310.png" (610 B)
 Caching "dist/images/mstile-70x70.png" (246 B)
 Caching "dist/index.html" (3.08 kB)
 Caching "dist/robots.txt" (102 B)
 Caching "dist/scripts/main.js" (151 B)
 Caching "dist/scripts/offline-manager.js" (1.1 kB)
 Caching "dist/styles/stylesheet.css" (107 B)
Total precache size is about 10.41 kB for 24 resources.

To deploy the app (including the service worker) to GitHub Pages, invoke the deploy command, again specifying the directory containing your app’s files.

> oghliner deploy dist/
Deploying "initial version of Oghliner app" to GitHub Pages…

 Cloning into .gh-pages-cache… done!
 Cleaning… done!
 Fetching origin… done!
 Checking out origin/gh-pages… done!
 Removing files… done!
 Copying files… done!
 Adding all… done!
 Committing… done!
 Pushing… done!

All Oghliner commands are also available via a module interface, so you can integrate them into your Node-based build scripts using tools like Grunt and Gulp. If you bootstrapped your app using Oghliner, its gulpfile.js already has offline and deploy tasks (which you can also use as an alternative to the previous commands).

Finally, invoke the configure command to configure an app to automatically deploy to GitHub Pages using Travis CI whenever you merge a change into your app’s master branch (provided the build completes successfully and tests pass, of course!).

> oghliner configure

Configuring Travis to auto-deploy to GitHub Pages…

Your repository has a single remote, origin.
Ok, I'll configure Travis to auto-deploy the origin remote (mykmelez/offline-app).

To check the status of your repository in Travis and authorize Travis to push
to it, I'll create GitHub personal access tokens, for which I need your GitHub
username and password (and two-factor authentication code, if appropriate).

ℹ For more information about GitHub personal access tokens, see:

Username: mykmelez

× Checking credentials… error!

You're using two-factor authentication with GitHub.
Please enter the code provided by your authentication software.

Auth Code: 123456

 Checking credentials… done!
 Creating temporary GitHub token for getting Travis token… done!
 Getting Travis token… done!
 Deleting temporary GitHub token for getting Travis token… done!
  Creating permanent GitHub token for Travis to push to the repository…
 Creating permanent GitHub token for Travis to push to the repository… done!

ℹ You had an existing token for this app, so we deleted and recreated it.

 Checking the status of your repository in Travis… done!

Good news, your repository is active in Travis!

 Encrypting permanent GitHub token… done!
 Writing configuration to .travis.yml file… done!

⚠ You didn't already have a .travis.yml file, so I created one for you.
  For more information about the file, see:

You're ready to auto-deploy using Travis!  Just commit the changes
in .travis.yml and push the commit to the origin/master branch:

git add .travis.yml
git commit -m"configure Travis to auto-deploy to GitHub Pages" .travis.yml
git push origin master

Then visit to see the build status.

Travis will then deploy successful builds (on the master branch):

Travis auto-deploys to GitHub Pages

A few caveats to note:

  • Deployments sometimes take a few minutes to show up on GitHub Pages.
  • Service Workers require that you load the app over an encrypted (HTTPS) connection. All GitHub Pages can be loaded over such a connection, even though GitHub does not officially support it.
  • Service Workers are available in Chrome, Opera, and the Developer Edition of Firefox. They’ll ship in Firefox 44.

Mozilla’s Web App Developer Initiative engineering team built Oghliner because we think Service Workers are a great way to offline web apps, and GitHub Pages are a great way to deploy them, so we wanted to see how much better the combination could be.

We’ve used Oghliner in our own projects, like this presentation and Platatus, and we hope you find it delightful. So learn more about it, try it out, and let us know how it works for you!

About Myk Melez

Myk is a Principal Software Architect and in-house entrepreneur at Mozilla. A Mozillian since 1999, he's contributed to the Web App Developer Initiative, PluotSorbet, Open Web Apps, Firefox OS Simulator, Jetpack, Raindrop, Snowl, Personas, Firefox, Thunderbird, and Bugzilla. He's just a cook. He's all out of bubblegum.

More articles by Myk Melez…

About Marco Castelluccio

Marco is a passionate Mozilla hackeneer (a strange hybrid between hacker and engineer), who contributed and keeps contributing to Firefox, PluotSorbet, Open Web Apps. More recently he has been working on using machine learning and data mining techniques for software engineering (testing, crash handling, bug management, and so on).

More articles by Marco Castelluccio…


  1. Sergey Lukin

    Thank you so much for this! I’m very excited about it.

    > Service Workers require that you load the app over an encrypted (HTTPS) connection. All GitHub Pages can be loaded over such a connection, even though GitHub does not officially support it.

    Does that mean that oghliner can’t be used in Github pages with custom domains?


    November 24th, 2015 at 13:44

    1. Myk Melez

      Oghliner can be used with a custom domain loaded via insecure HTTP, as it’s designed to gracefully degrade when its service worker isn’t available, including insecure connections, older browsers, etc. In that case, the app still loads and runs correctly, it just doesn’t cache itself offline, so you have to be online to reload it.

      Oghliner can also be used with a custom domain and secure HTTPS using CloudFlare as a CDN, since CloudFlare supports SSL, including in their free plan. There are some caveats, but I’ve used it successfully to offline with Oghliner, and Fred Wenzel has used it to offline, both of which are hosted on GitHub Pages.

      Here’s a useful blog post explaining the process of setting up CloudFlare to serve a GitHub Pages site with a custom domain:

      November 24th, 2015 at 14:15

  2. Sergey Lukin

    Thanks for rapid response. Thanks for mentioning Cloudflare free SSL solution + Github pages setup guide. However as far as I remember Cloudflare’s flexible SSL + Github pages setup isn’t a fully valid SSL solution, it just looks like the connection is secure while it really isn’t. Still, I can see that it could be used as a last resort option in order to get oghliner working in GHP with custom domains.

    November 24th, 2015 at 14:34

    1. Myk Melez

      The transaction between you and CloudFlare is encrypted, but the one between CloudFlare and GitHub Pages isn’t. As Jonathan J. Hunt notes in, the latter “is generally going to be over high-speed backhaul connections that are much harder for an attacker to get at (compared with the wifi link in the coffee shop).”

      Nevertheless, you’re correct that it isn’t completely secure. For that, we’ll have to wait for GitHub Pages to support SSL with custom domains. Perhaps will help?

      November 24th, 2015 at 14:40

  3. Sergey Lukin

    +1 for the Waiting for that one with passion.

    November 24th, 2015 at 14:52

  4. Mikko Paderes

    I’m using single-page web apps with an appcache busting mechanism via fingerprinting my assets. Works great with that structure and is supported across all modern browsers.

    What’s in service workers what would make me want to switch given my structure above? Right now, I can see non-single web apps as the main beneficiary for service workers.

    November 24th, 2015 at 23:43

    1. Myk Melez

      If your current configuration works well for you, and you don’t plan to add features that are unique to Service Workers (like push notifications), then there isn’t a good reason to switch. As you note, AppCache works on modern major browsers and will offline your app when implemented correctly. Kenneth Ormandy lays out the case for sticking with AppCache (for the time being, anyway) in .

      But for new development, I recommend starting with Service Workers, because AppCache is hard to implement correctly (as noted by Jake Archibald in, Service Worker support will improve over time (Firefox ships it in January), the technology can be implemented as a progressive enhancement (so your app still works fine in all browsers without it), and it will enable you to take advantage of other emerging web platform features (like push notifications and background sync).

      November 25th, 2015 at 08:34

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